Wednesday, July 2, 2008

Biometric Technology

Biometrics is a general term used alternatively to describe a characteristic or a process.As a characteristic, It is a measurable biological (anatomical and physiological) and behavioral characteristic that can be used for automated recognition.As a process, automated methods of recognizing an individual based on measurable biological (anatomical and physiological) and behavioral characteristics.

In todays world biometric technology has advanced to the state where identification and authentication of people is available via a number of different routes.These are some of the technologies presented by the NSTC Subcommittee on Biometrics and Identity Management.



Finger Print Recognition


Fingerprint recognition is one of the most well-known and publicized biometrics.Because of their uniqueness and consistency over time,fingerprints have been used for identification for over century, more recently becoming more automated due to advancements in computing capabilities.



Palm Print Recognition


Palm Print Recognition inherently implements many of the same matching characteristic that have allowed fingerprint recognition to be one of the most well-known and best publicized biometrics.Both palm and finger biometrics are represented by the information presented in a friction ridge impression.

This information combines ridge flow,ridge characteristics, and ridge structure of the raised portion of the epidermis.The data represented by these friction ridge impressions allows determination that corresponding areas of friction ridge impressions either original from the same source or could not have been made by the same source.Because fingerprints and palms have both uniqueness and permanence,they have been used for over a century as a trusted form of identification.However,palm recognition has been slower in becoming automated due to some restraints in computing capabilities and live-scan technologies.


Hand Geometry

Hand geometry recognition is the longest implemented biometric type,debuting in the market in the late 1980s.The systems are widely implemented for their ease of use,public acceptance, and integration capabilities.One of the shortcomings of the hand geometry characterisrics is that it is not highly unique,limiting the applications of the hand geometry system to verification tasks only.

Hand geometry recognition systems are widely used for applications in physical access,attendance tracking, and personal verification.


Dynamic Signature

Dynamic Signature verification is a biometric that can be easily integrated into existing systems because of the availability and prevalence of signature digitizers and the public's acceptance of the characteristic collection.On the downside,signature recognition can only be used for verification purposes and intraclass variability can cause non-ideal performance for some applications.


Vascular Pattern Recognition

Vascular Pattern Recognition,also commonly reffered to as Vein Pattern Authentication,is a fairly new biometric in terms of installed systems.Using near-infrared light,reflected or transmitted images of blood vessels of a hand or finger are derived and used for personal recognition.Different vendors use different parts of the hand,palm or fingers, but rely on a similar methodology.Researchers have determined that the vascular pattern of the human body is unique to a specific individual and does not change as people age.


Iris Recognition

Iris Recognition is the process of recognizing a person by analyzing the random pattern of the iris.The automated method of iris recognition is relatively young,existing in patent only since 1994.

Although the coloration and structure of the iris is genetically linked, the details of the patterns are not.The iris develops during prenatal growth through a process of tight forming and folding of the tissue membrane.Prior to birth,degeneration occurs, resulting in the pupil opening and the random,unique patterns of the iris.Although geneticall identical, an individual's irides are unique and structurally distinct,which allows for it to be used for recognition purposes.



Face Recognition

Human often use faces to recognize individuals and advancements in computing capability over the past few decades now enable similar recognitions automatically.Early face recognition algorithm used simple geometric models,but the recognition process has now matures into a science of sophisticated mathematical representations and matching processes.Face recognition can be used for both verification and identification.



Speaker Recognition

Speaker,or voice, recognition is a biometric modality that uses an individual's voice for recognition purposes.It is different technology than "speech recognition",which recognizes words as they are articulated,which is not a biometric.The speaker recognition process relies on features influenced by both the physical structure of an individual's vocal tract and the behavioral characteristics of the individual.